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Posts Tagged ‘APA manual’

As a professional freelance editor, proofreader, and writer, I believe there is nothing more important than expressing your thoughts clearly. If you’re in need of an editor or writer, you can contact me at expert.editing.service@gmail.com and I’ll happily provide you with the expert editing or writing help you deserve. From MA theses, PhD dissertations, and undergraduate compositions to essays for admittance (college and grad level) and creative or business projects, I have the experience to take it from good to stellar and from not so good to fabulous.

During my career, I have had the opportunity to work for a number of incredible institutions, both freelance and as a full-time staff member. Among them are So To Speak, a small literary journal advocating feminist art and writing; Heldref Publications, a nonprofit publisher of scholarly journals and magazines in Washington, DC; and Sage Publications, one of the largest publishers of scholarly journals. I have a BA in Liberal Arts (Literature) from Penn State University and an MA in Literature from George Mason University. In addition, I’ve studied at Cambridge University, England, as part of my degree from GMU.

Through these opportunities, I’ve had extensive independant research and academic writing and editing experience in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles. I have considerable interest and academic work in cultural studies, women’s studies, postcolonial literature, and editing. Outside of my personal interests, I have edited many types of articles, theses, and dissertations (e.g., scientific, humanities, and law) as well as books, Web content, guides, newsletters, catalog copy, advertisements, and more. My writing experience includes guides, Web content (including blog posts, reviews, and travel writing), academic research papers, catalog copy, and more.

If you’re interested in my services and/or would like more infomation about my background, please feel free to email me, Melanie, at expert.editing.service@gmail.com

I offer extremely competitive rates and lightening-fast turnaround (depending on your needs, of course). I also have experience working with particularly sensitive documents, so you can rest assured that your documents will remain completely confidential.

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APA Publication Manual: Sixth Edition

APA Publication Manual: Sixth Edition

The American Psychological Association has a new edition of their Publication Manual available. This new edition is the sixth edition of the manual and details regarding it can be found on the APA Web site.

If you have not yet seen the sixth edition, it is worth taking a look at the site, which includes the option to “look inside” the new book at the table of contents and introduction. Also included are chapter descriptions for all eight chapters and a summary of what is new in the sixth edition.

Accompanying the sixth edition is a new tutorial designed for those with no prior knowledge of APA style.

I have to say, I love the new colors!

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When writing a scholarly article in APA style and using Latin abbreviations, there is one rule to be sure to follow and a few exceptions to remember. First, the rule:

Use Latin abbreviations in parenthetical text. In nonparenthetical text, use the English translation of the Latin term. 

Second, the exceptions:

Exception 1: In text citations and in references referring to court cases, always use the abbreviation for versus (v.).

Exception 2: In text and in the reference list, use the abbreviation et al., meaning “and others,” in parenthetical and nonparenthetical text.

If you have questions regarding when to shorten references in text and in the reference list to et al., see this earlier post for details.

Some commonly used Latin abbreviations and their English translations are:

cf. = compare
e.g., = for example,
, etc. = , and so forth
i.e., = that is,
viz., = namely,
vs. = versus, against

This information can be found on page 106, section 3.25 of the APA publication manual.

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I frequently see authors make errors when citing references in the text of scholarly papers in APA style.

A few things to remember:

1. When a reference has only two authors, remember to cite both at every occurrence in the text. APA does not shorten when there are only two authors.

2. When a reference has three to five authors, cite all of them the first time it is mentioned in the text. Subsequent citations within the same paragraph, can be shortened to include only the first author followed by et al. (but remember that et al. should be in Roman typeface rather than italics and that there should always be a period after al.). Also, the year should be included when it is the first citation in the paragraph (in following citations within that paragraph, you can omit the year).

For example, the first citation would look like: “Rodney, Stokes, and Barrister (2007) limited the scope of their first study to high school students.”

The second citation within that paragraph would look like: “Rodney et al. did not”

If you were to start a new paragraph, you would need to be sure to include the date again, like so: “Rodney et al. (2007) tried”

3. When two references with the same year and first author shorten the same, to distinguish, you should cite the surnames of as many additional authors to the first as needed to distinguish and then shorten with et al.

4. When an article has six or more authors there is no need to cite all of them the first time; you can immediately shorten to the surname of the first author and the year followed by et al.  

You can find all of these details and more in the APA manual in section 3.95, pp. 208-209.

Cheers!

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Ok, I’m on a roll here, so one more post regarding mistakes I often see authors make. As you may have guessed from the title, I’m referring to while and although.

When writing, an author should always use while to connect events that occur simultaneously. In other instances, an author can use and, but, although, and whereas instead of while.

For example, used incorrectly, one might write, “Bosten and Measure (1996) found that students tested well, while Bonner (1998) found that students tested poorly.”

To correct this, one should instead write, “Bosten and Measure (1996) found that students tested well, whereas Bonner (1998) found that students tested poorly.”

One way you can ensure that you’ve done this is by using the find and replace feature in Word. Find the word while and verify that it has been used correctly or replace it with one of the substitutes mentioned here. This guarantees that you’ll find all of the offenders (if there are any).

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A brief but important post today that again falls into the category of frequent writers’ mistakes.

Since is best used to indicate the passage of time, because should be used in all other instances. For example, “The ballerina was promoted to lead dancer since her stamina had improved.” This sentence is imprecise and since should be replaced with because, “The ballerina was promoted to lead dancer since her stamina had improved.”

A example using since correctly is, “Greenpeace has been saving whales since 1975.”

This applies whether you’re using Chicago, MLA, or APA style.

Cheers!

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When we’re talking about the relative pronouns that and which, we need to be careful which ones we use. This mistake again falls in with those that I find are very common in manuscripts of all types.

That clauses are called restrictive, meaning they are essential to the meaning of the sentence. For example, “The objects that were valuable were kept and stored.” That were valuable is essential to the meaning of the sentence.

Which clauses, however, can simply add information and are then considered nonrestrictive, or they can be essential to the meaning of the sentence and are then considered restrictive. For a nonrestrictive example, “The objects, which were considered valuable at one time, were no longer thought to be valuable and were discarded.” You can take out the clause “which were considered valuable at one time,” read the sentence without it, and the sentence still makes sense. It’s merely adding additional information.

In the restrictive sense, the writer removes the commas that set off the nonrestrictive clause and the meaning changes a bit, “The objects which were considered valuable at one time were no longer thought to be valuable and were discarded.” APA style prefers the use of that when the meaning is meant to be restrictive.

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